Welcome everyone. And thank you for being here today on this Friday afternoon, Friday, the 13th. My name is Lynn, my weekly and I'm part of the speaker series action team within the IT leadership community, the IT leadership community, the ITRC is built upon and welcomes participation from all employees of Indiana University with the macular mission. Our mission being to empower current and future IT leaders by increasing communication, building community, and coordinating continuing education and outreach opportunities. Several members of the ITIL see in word form action teams and break down certain aspects of the community and see them through. So us as a speaker series, that's myself, Eric West fall, if a decal and Chris Nickel, we are the action, the speaker series action team and be fine and invite guest speakers with presentation topics that are relevant to leadership and with interests to the ITIL see community. So today we have Professor Joe my PhD, who is a Professor of Counseling Psychology and the chair of the Department of Counseling and Educational Psychology in the School of Education here at IU limited. Joe's research interests are in the psychology of gratitude and empower an impingement, Asian-American mental health and the psychology of men and masculinities. He is also a fellow of the Asian American Psychological Association. Of the American Psychological Association. Joel has developed various group basic gratitude interventions, including psychoeducational group program, support group to help people cultivate gratitude in their lives. Today Joe, who's going to talk to us about how leaders can cool to be grateful and orientation in their personal lives. Develop a habit of expressing gratitude to their colleagues and the types of gratitude expressions that exert the most positive impact in the workplace. So with the idea of gratitude in mind, thank you so much Joel, for being here today. And please take it away. We're all yours. Thank you. It's really a pleasure to be here. It's what to do, a self-check. How am I sounding? Can you hear me, sir? Sounds good. Okay. I am just going to go ahead and start. I am so grateful for the opportunity to share with all of you here. Be sharing a little bit from my own research and more broadly from the science of gratitude, particularly with some applications to the workplace. I've left my e-mail address here on the first slide. And so any of you here are welcome to contact me later if you want to talk more, if you want to ask questions or you have feedback for me. Okay, let's start with what's the number one reason why people leave their jobs? Now this question is particularly salience given the current job market. How many of you would have guessed two years ago at the height of the pandemic, that two years later. Instead of item, instead of high unemployment, we will be facing a very tight labor markets where there's a shortage of workers, that lots of people who are moving, resigning, leaving the jobs. Ants. We don't even have enough workers in restaurants. And in just a few weeks ago, I heard about this restaurant owner who was going around in Bloomington bagging. Guess at his restaurant, hey, would you want to work for me? I don't have enough workers. So that's how current job situation. So what's the number one reason why people leave their jobs? Turn cell, it's not money. 79% of employees quit to jobs. Site. A lack of appreciation as a key reason for leaving, of course, money is part of the equation. But the number one reason it's feeling on, Appreciate it. All right. Here's my research what predicts productivity at work? What attributes at work predicts whether people will be engage in work or working harder. What it turns out that supervisees who feel less appreciated, engaged in your work and connective their colleagues also last productive at work. So which means even more engaged at work. You're more connected with colleagues and you few more, I appreciate it by our colleagues. You become, you, you actually become more productive, better outputs at work. Here's a third research finding. When you survey supervisors, leaders and you ask them how good of a job do you do? You're communicating appreciation to others. Many supervisors would say, yeah, I think I do a pretty good job. Na when you asked their supervisees, they say not so much, right? So the research suggests that supervises overestimates the frequency and, and effectiveness of their appreciation for their supervisors. Supervisors thing that is showing appreciation to the supervisees, their supervisors thing and not so much. That's a problem, right. So a precision is very important in the workplace. And yet supervises I eat and not doing enough or underestimating or not doing enough or not particularly good at showing appreciation from their supervisees perspective. Now why does feeling appreciate it matters so much in your workplace? What I think is a very simple answer. And that, that is a fundamental human need that we have as human beings to feel like we matter. So mattering is a fundamental human need. And I want to offer you a really simple definition of mattering. Mattering means that you feel valued and you feel like you can add value. You feel valued and you can add value. So in a workplace, mattering means if you feel like you matter, He's like You feel like others respect me. This care for me. Others recognize me, others appreciate me that feeling valued. And if you feel like you're adding value image or the workplace, if you'd like, I can contributes. I can do something that adds value to the organization. That my contributions are making this workplace or the organization about a place and somehow that I'm having a positive impact on my colleagues in the workplace, right? So being appreciated addresses employees need to matter which way we show appreciation and gratitude. We are helping our colleagues feel valued and also communicate to them that they're adding value. Right? So take a look at this list here of attributes, right? We know, we probably know from common sense that people with great content areas skills don't necessarily make great leaders. In academia. The best leaders aren't necessarily the best researchers or the best teachers. Being a great researcher doesn't make you a great leader. Just as I hope you won't be offended if I suggest to you that being really good at your IT skills doesn't necessarily make you a great leader, right? So, so take a look at this list here of 10 characteristics of a good leader. And this is research prepared by the Center for Creative Leadership. Now, if you can maybe quickly take a minute right now and enter some notes in the chat. I'll like to hear from you all about what do you think is perhaps a common theme that maybe doesn't cut through all 10 attributes by cuts through many of the attributes here. Right? So I want to give us 30 seconds in or write a note, right? Reading the chat right now, what are some themes that emerged from this, this list of ten attributes of a good leader. Could you try that? Honesty right there I Moore had C, making connections, listening and doing what you say you're gonna do, focus on others. Transparency and I like this high EQ, high emotional intelligence. Lead us rule out the sleeves and get the work done, get trustworthy. Like that. One or two more great interpersonal skills on relationship building. I think, I think you've got it. If, if you look at a 10 attributes here, not all 10, but I will say most of them have to do with a person's interpersonal skills. A great leader isn't necessarily a great content areas specialists. In fact, you don't even have to be the smartest person in the room. A great lead a country to stereotypes doesn't even have to be a visionary. Actually research suggesting that great leaders are a really skillful in incorporating the creativity and vision of their colleagues. Do you don't have to be the one coming out with division. You could be the one to incorporate division of your colleagues. But a great leader has great interpersonal skills. Most of the attributes you on this top 10 are interpersonal skills, including gratitude. All right, so I think that's a really a message I want to share that gratitude is part and parcel of the repertoire of a great leaders interpersonal skills. Gratitude enables you to communicate to your colleagues that they matter. And feeling like they matter enables tend to feel appreciated. English colleagues, I appreciate it. More productive, more connected, and less likely to leave their jobs, right? So grateful leaders make great leaders. Going into main message I want to share today. And expressions of gratitude is a gateway to enabling your colleagues to few appreciative and grateful. Okay, so what's grew at? What is gratitude? I want to offer a simple definition of gratitude that has been offered by the researcher Robert Emmons, who is probably one of the most prolific research as an area of science of gratitude. Gratitude is noticing the goodness in one's life, appreciating the goodness in one's life. And the last part is important at, attributing that goodness at least partially to an external source. So you are, if you're a grateful person, you are noticing the good things in your life. You are appreciating the benefits in your life. And you are saying, well, the source of debt benefits lies at least partially outside of myself. And that means it could refer to a person. Go with rigid organization, to society, your community, to culture, to God, or some kind of high power. But there's a recognition that the source of the benefits my partially outside of yourself. Right? Now, what's the difference between having grateful thoughts and emotions versus interpersonal gratitude expressions? Well, first of all, can you be grateful if you don't express your gratitude to someone else, if you just keep your thoughts and feelings TO sell. Short answer is yes, I think you can. You, it's possible for you to be great food to another person, but not express it in a personally, in orally or in behaviors. You just half of thoughts like, Oh, I feel really grateful. But think about what kind of gratitude that is if it is not expressed to someone else. Now, here are two quotes that I want to share. Feeling grateful by not expressing it is like wrapping a presence and not giving it. That is such a shame. Here's another cooked Alright. Audit people matter by few of them are mind readers. Let didn't know that they matter, they might benefit and you certainly will. So, so often we assume that others know how grateful we are. We assumed that people would know they were grateful, but they don't. And we don't open our mouse. Or if we don't take out our device and write a note to gratitude, very often, people do not know how grateful we are to them. All right, so I want to share a little bit about the research related to the impact and a positive benefits of expressing gratitude. So let's start with expressing gratitude. The benefits of expressing gratitude on the recipient of the credit. You know, we known as tons of research showing that expressing gratitude to the recipient has lots of wonderful benefits. But I want to focus on this slide on benefits in the workplace. This research study, recipients or gratitude also received gratitude. We're more likely to help the gratitude expressive. So if you express gratitude to me, I'm more likely to help you. But there's even a ripple effect, which is not only am I more likely to help us to express our gratitude, I am more likely to help anyone in general. Once I have received an expression of gratitude, being, receiving gravity from someone else just makes me want to help people. I feel good about myself. I feel good or what I wanna do and I just want to pay it forward. But here's the beauty of it. Expressions of gratitude actually make your colleagues work hard and increase productivity. In one recent study that granted geno conducted, they found that managers who express gratitude to their employees and employees were involved in fundraising college, calling people on the phone to make to raise funds. Their employees make more fun ways and cause when they received expressions of gratitude and the reasons why you work harder, why they help to more willing to help others, was because of gratitude, increase this social worth, not because of an increase in self-efficacy. So it doesn't really important expressing gratitude to someone else. It doesn't necessarily make that person believe more into abilities, but it makes that person few more. Appreciate it. If you like, they are valued if you like they matter. This goes back to what I said earlier. Gratitude helps another person feel like they matter. And mattering is a fundamental human need. Now, what about expressing gratitude on you? The expresses if you don't want expressing gratitude to someone else, guess what? You yourself benefits from x from the gratitude expression. In one study is its proton. And most famous studies, researchers conducted various experiments on all kinds of happiness inducing activities. Six or seven different types of happiness inducing activities. And guess, which was the number one activity that led to an immediate increase in happiness and drop in the pressure that's writing and reading a gratitude letter to someone else. Right? In some research that I did here at IU using therapy clients. Who saw these up? These are students, mostly students who sought therapy at our counseling center at IU. We found that's it. The therapy clients, Ruth, read that as a gratitude. They reported better mental health three months later than those who didn't write letters. Not only that, when you express gratitude to someone else, you tend to view the recipients more positively. So here's a little tip. If there's somebody you don't really like and you want to be able to have a better relationship with this person, you know, like, right, this person, a letter, gratitude, you end up liking the person more. By the way, I found it to be true for myself. And I'm not going to tell you which colleague wrote a letter of gratitude to you right? Now in pack up of expressing gratitude on relationships. Not surprisingly, expressing gratitude to a recipient also strengthens the relational bonds between the espresso and the recipient of gravity. So you want to become more connected to your colleagues. You wanna be closer. Expressing gratitude is a great way to do that. Now, in the remainder of my time here today, I want to offer you ten strategies to become a more grateful leader. I want to make this relatively practical. I don't just want to talk about the research and ology go back and I'm very convinced that expressing gratitude is good. But then it's like, well, I don't want to do, right. So here ten practical strategies for you that you can apply today, the way to tomorrow. Apply these strategies today by writing a brief note of gratitude to your colleagues. Today's is Friday the 13th a very auspicious day. A great time to write another grant you. Okay, ready? Strategy number one, cultivate gratitude in your personal life. And this is something I really believe in. People and your colleagues can often smell. Fake expressions of gratitude. Particularly when expressions of gratitude, a menu belated, like, Oh yeah, you're trying to express gratitude because you're trying to make me do more work. All right? So I am a proponents of expressing gratitude because we believe in expressing gratitude, not because we're trying to get something out of our colleagues. The more authentic you are, the more powerful, ironically, expressions of gratitude will be no more impactful they will be. So it starts with the self and I want to offer to practical strategies. The first is, if you've never done this before, start a gratitude journal every day. This is something I try to do every day in my life. It's one of the best things I've done for myself. Right? Three things you're grateful for every day and explain why. And I followed a simple format I'm grateful for or grave with to someone else because of something. And I spent only five minutes every day writing it down. You can do it in hand-written journal. Or since most of you here IT professionals, you could start keep, you can do writing a gratitude gratitude app. There are lots of free gratitude apps proliferating around that you can use. But the key is consistency. In and this simple activity of Rav, of keeping a gratitude journal writing what you're grateful for has been shown to lead to better mental health, better physical health, greater physical exercise, better relationships, and a whole bunch of other benefits including 0 barrier, lower blood pressure. Can you be that keeping a gratitude journal helps to lower your blood pressure? Better sleep too. By the way. Number 2, practical application is to practice expressing gratitude to people in your personal life, your family, your spouse, your friends. Take it, make an effort to orally express gratitude to them. Okay. Now I want to make one you all to get ready to, to write something in the chat again. Alright? So I wanted you to make a guess. As to who said this, who said this? This particular quote? Now you might wonder how the heck, Well, I didn't even know. Well, let me give you a little hint. It is someone that all of you know, I am pretty confident that all of you here know this person, right? So it's obviously someone famous who said this. And do you think it's an effective expression of gratitude? To what extent is this an effective expression of gratitude, right? So two questions for you to answer. Who said this and do you think it's effective? Why or why not? So I'm going to give you about 30 seconds again, I'll love to hear your responses in the chats. And I'm going to review later to you who said it. Oh, wow, whoa. All right. Many of you have been guessing who said this lets you, do you think this is an expression, effective expression of gratitude and why or why not? Why is that? Why is this not, or why is this an effective expression of gratitude? Like to hear so many of you think it's a certain politician who happens to be the former precedence? What if you said it's not very effective because it's so general. Repeat words varies. A favorite word, vague. General, not specific to general. This in January was vague, nonspecific, written in gibberish, vague. Alright. Well done. You know, I have posed this question in many of my presentations. I've done a ton of presentations and gratitude and I pose this question. I've gotten a variety of responses. Some people even said, Oh, maybe this was Martin Luther King. I was like Really, or somewhat. Some people say, it's Obama know, it's, apparently it is, you're right, it's Donald Trump. So that's expression of gratitude was made according to this notes to the precedence, indonesia precedent, gioco, WE DO DO. So. Do a meeting for discussion. And this is purportedly a photograph of President Trump and precedent, WE DO DO, but there's a slight problem here. You can tell what the problem IS. Want to test your world history. Anyone can tell what's the problem in this photograph. Make a guess, put a, put a note in the chat so anything you can make a guess as to what's, what's the problem here? Other than the fact that the words are vague? Flag yeah. Yep. Yep. Yep. Yep. Yep. Yep. Somewhat right. Okay. Here's the problem. This is not precedent. We DO DO Indonesia, it's the wrong person. This is Prime Minister Lee Sin loom of Singapore. So much for an authentic expression of gratitude. Got the wrong person. Alright, so now I'm not going to go into the politics of Donald Trump, right? My focus here is on gratitude and went to avoid politics. But my main points you wish you had probably guess is that this is not a good expression of gratitude. Why? It's horribly vague. Lots of big words, but meaning nothing, lacking in specificity. Alright? So strategy number one is that if we want to be strategy number 2 rather, if we want to be grateful, we have to be very specific in, in our expressions of gratitude. Use words. I know it sounds really obvious. But for many of us, we think that, oh, I just be really nice to a colleague that's being grateful. Yes, it's, that's being grateful. But the best way to be specific is to use words and use specific examples. So this is an example off of an e-mail I wrote to a colleague who had recently stepped down from a leadership position. And I wrote her a personal note to outline some of her accomplishments. I wrote it to her personally, and then I wrote it to my dean, my associate deans, and then I send the same email out to my colleagues. And I really wanted to honor her achievements in very, very specific way. So specificity is the key to authentic expressions of gratitude. I want to give you a second example of a personal notes. I wrote some time last year, and I really wanted to honor the Assistant Dean of the School of Education in charge of diversity, equity, and inclusion. I felt like he had really done a fantastic job of transforming the climate of diversity and equity and inclusion. And I want him to know specifically how he impacted me. Alright? So specificity is the key to being authentic. Giving very specific examples. Okay? Strategy number 3, right? I talked about being specific, but now I want to talk about being general. So a good expression of gratitude is specific, but it's also speaks to the recipients generalized strengths and skills. So we use specific examples to speak to generalized strengths and skills. So use an example and then you illustrate a skill or a character strength of your colleagues. Like this shows this little example of what you did, shows how much you care for for others, or how your high commitment to excellence, or how incredibly creative you are, right? Specific examples to illustrate generalized strengths and skills. That strategy number 3, strategy number 4. There is research suggesting that great for people are particularly sensitive to these three aspects of a benefit SET a person receivers, we seize. And I call this the a, B, C is a gravity. A stands for altruistic intention of the benefactor. So when you express gratitude, focused on how much the benefactor intended to help you, be focused on the benefits that you or the unit receive and a positive impact of your colleagues actually see focus on the cost to the benefactor, right? How much it cost AT person to help you. So want to give you an example. If, for example, your friend or your colleague gave you a ride to Indianapolis airport, right? Instead of taking the chateaux, you had a colleague who volunteered to give you a ride to the airport so that you can be there, you know, without having to wake up so early in the morning to pick the shuttle. Now what, you could just leave the car of your colleagues, say thank you and slam the door and leave. And that's, that's, that's, that's being grateful. But you can also be more intentional about expressing gratitude using what I call the ABC's, right? What does it? So you can tell your colleague, Hey, I know that you really wanted to save me time and to enable me to get a little bit more sleep. Which is why you're giving us, right? That's altruistic intention be as a result of you giving me this ride, you saved me two hours of sleep. And I'm so grateful. Focus on the benefit USE. See, you know, you could spend your Saturday morning doing lots of different things. But you took the opportunity to wake up at five o'clock in the morning to give me thes, right. This really was constantly for you and thank you so much, Right? So that to me is a far more effective expression of gratitude. Now, if you're telling yourself, I can think of all the things to say to a colleague at the moment. In the moment. Fair enough. You don't have to see it orally. But when you've had time to reflect on what your colleague of friends have done for you. Write down a message, send him an email, sent him a text message. Okay, strategy number five, stories are a great way to express gratitude, right? Why stories I emotionally impactful and evocative? In fact, there's research suggesting that people tend to remember stories, that IT, and statistics. If I'm trying to persuade you to partner with your money to donate to some kind of charitable organization. I am more likely to persuade you Vitale, a very emotionally impactful story that decides statistics about why. There's so many people who are hungry and without food in this world. Stories are powerful, right? So stories are good, tie the good place to, to tell a story isn't an awards ceremony. If you ever have an awards ceremony where you have the privilege of giving away an award to a colleague. That's a great opportunity to share a story. To give an example. Several years ago, we had a cow a lot. Lifetime achievement award that was given to a colleague in my department who it's been around for more than 40 years. And in that award ceremony, I wanted to share a story of my colleague. And I share the story of how as a younger assistant professor when I first joined IU. There was a colleague who was treating me in a not so nice manner. And my older colleague, the one who is expressing gratitude to, stood out for me and and and really rebuke to that person that protected me. And it was something that I really remember and felt grateful for and I felt protected. I felt like he was standing up for me and I shared the story in the presence of everyone at this award ceremony. So remember stories, a great strategy Number six, express gratitude regularly. Don't just do it in an award ceremony or once a year when you're doing anyway evaluation with a colleague, right? Aimed to express a brief a note of gratitude to him to one colleague at least once a week. And you don't have to do anything dramatic. You don't have to write a love letter. But it could just be one or two sentences, but it has to be more than Thank you. So because it thanks all. Thank you. That doesn't count. You see, Thank you. You really did this and he has such a powerful and meaningful impact. Say that orally over e-mail, text, message, whatever. But keep it and heartfelt. Keep it specific. Do it on a regular basis. So they becomes a part of your life. Strategy number seven, find out more about the extent to which your colleagues feel appreciate it. All right. A good time to do that is during annual evaluations, if you are a supervisor, ask these two questions. In what ways do you feel appreciated at work? Who makes you feel appreciated? How do you view, appreciate it? What ways do you not? You'll appreciate it at work that can help you to understand who is it, who is really in need of more expressions of gratitude, right? But don't just, don't just wait for anyway valuations, right? Fine. On a regular basis, which of your colleagues few or not few. Appreciate IT? Strategy number 8's find out what makes her colleagues view appreciate it other than words. Now in this talk, I, I focus mostly on words. But there's obviously a lot of other ways that you can make people feel grateful. You don't think of gratitude as words of affirmation. But you all might have learned that many of us have different love languages. Some of us, few appreciate it. When we receive gifts. Some of us we appreciate it with win-win, others spent time with us. And so a really simple thing to do is I've conducted a survey with my colleagues. I just, I just ask a bunch of questions and one of my questions is, what makes you feel appreciate it at work. All right? And, uh, based on these responses, it makes me more mindful of how to express gratitude other than words to my colleagues. Strategy number nine, use other forms of appreciation. I focused mostly on gratitude, but I want to offer you three sisters or siblings of gratitude. They are closely related. The gratitude in the sense that it helps people to feel appreciated, but it's slightly different. So praise is slight different from gratitude. In both focus on the positive aspects of a person, of a recipient's, but grad q has that focus on how a person has benefited you, where he's praised, doesn't have to. So use praise regularly. Celebration and recognition is another good thing, like awards ceremonies. Someone has done something really. Receive an award, immediately, send an e-mail to tell this person I'm so proud of you. I'm celebrating right now. So happy for you. Congratulations. That's an expression of celebration. And number 3, encouragement is another very powerful form of, of acclamation. So gratitude and praise tends to focus more on things that have happened, good things in the past and in the presence. Whereas encouragement is a bit more future oriented. So for example, if you're pointing out the potential of your colleagues, say, Hey, you know, I could see you performing at a higher level, more advanced level. And I want to encourage you to develop your skills because I really see you moving up the ladder. I see you dancing in this organization. That's encouragements or use all of these three liberally. And in strategy, strategy number 10, as a leader, we don't just want to be the only ones expressing gratitude. We want to foster collective gratitude in the workplace, creating a culture of gratitude, right? So begin a meeting by giving colleagues opportunities to express gratitude to each other. So that's something that I often do in the meetings that I chair. I started meeting by saying okay for the next five minutes. I went to open it up to any one of you here in this meeting to express gratitude to each other, right? And then on a regular basis, do that. For example, if you have a colleague who tell you privately, Hey, you know what, this other colleague of mine was so awesome. I'm so happy with this contributions of my other colleagues. Encourage your colleagues, you know what, don't keep that to yourself. Don't just tell me, tell that person how grateful you feel. Maybe a third suggestion, create a virtual wall. Maybe could be a block, a Google Docs where colleagues can express gratitude each other. And so there's a regular habits of expressing gratitude to each other because when you have that kind of culture in the workplace of expressing gratitude each other, people are more engaged, more productive, more few more included, more appreciated, and less likely to leave the workplace. Okay, I want to stop here for a minute, and this adds the lecture version of my presentation. And so what I want to do for the next seven or eight minutes is I want to split us up into breakout rooms of force, about four or five people. What I want to do is in case you thought you could just sit back and relax and listen to this workshop. I wanted to do a little bit of work, okay? I want us to write in the chat just one or two sentences that can, that, that expresses gratitude to a colleague. You're not expressing colleague to the person in your chat group because obviously you don't even know that. But I want you to write a brief notes of gratitude to someone in your workplace, right? Doesn't have to be long, just want two sentences, but he has to be mounted. Thank you. About one or two sentences. Try to be as specific as you can. Take a few minutes to write it, put into the chat. You all can orally discuss. We know, share feedback about what you like, about what each other wrote and share a bit about why you wrote this note. Okay. I'm gonna give you about seven or eight minutes to do that, and then we'll come back together, have a Q and a for any of you to ask any questions before we wrap it up so you just feel free to unmute yourself and ask a question. Yeah, I have a question to people like working for you. Like do you have people in your workplace and do they have higher expectations of you? I know you're Mr. gratitude. Once you've never asked a question about whether others like working with me because, you know, self-deception is always a problem. So you have to ask my colleagues, not me, whether they enjoy working for me. I and I sometimes joke that I do research and I teach about gratitude. But you should listen to what I say. Now what I do. I have told people that I am not the most naturally grateful person. I just want to be very honest. I'm not the most naturally quick person. And that's part of the reason why study gratitude is to become a more grateful person. So I think I made improvements. I think I'd become better over the years. But I know, I can easily think of people I know in my life, including my students, who are better examples of credit. You can check that my colleagues, I'm a department chair in the Department of Counseling, educational psychology. Ask them to tell the truth. All right. Other questions. I guess I'm receiving what was the single most impactful show of gratitude to? Here we have perceive expression of gratitude. You have received chewable and, and, and, and how, how did you how did like percolate through the days after the gratitude expression? Well, yeah. I have a doctoral students. His name is Joe. And he, you know, I, I always joke that I do research on gratitude and Jonas, the one that you should be proud of it. So, you know, he he would frequently writes letters or gratitude to me. And I remember one occasion I you know, I went with him. The two of us spent two days together at a conference and I had I didn't do I didn't do a lot, but I I I arranged for his trip to the conference to be paid for. In the conference had a very powerful impact on his professional development. He wrote me this note to really talk about how it really transforms as live in. Grateful he was, and it just made my gaze, gaze. I will be thinking about why he rose and I just felt more energized. I felt more excited to be working to help profoundly positive impact. So that's just the beauty of gratitude is that it benefits everyone. It benefits us express it because you become a positive. It manifests the recipients. And I really mentioned as your lack of type per event benefits any witnesses. So if you have a witness who's watching you express gratitude day if you inspired to. Okay. Other questions. Truly Thatcher. Sir. Go ahead, Julian. F1 Joe. Hello, because I've heard you talk about this before in a couple of minutes that we have left. Could you speak about how expressing gratitude, just see some of the effects it has on the brain. Yeah, yeah, sure. With my colleagues, Josh Brown and I at IU, done some work on gratitude. I want to stress that focus more primarily a mental health. Whereas Josh was someone who was focusing more on the effects of the brain. But that studied, I talked about where we got people to write three, let us gratitude, right? And then what we did was we put that through an fMRI machine, was a few weeks. So just worth realize a graduate and we put them through an fMRI machine. And compared to those who didn't write letters or gratitude. And within a few weeks we could see differences in the brain. Right now I'm not going to, I could tell you the specific parts of the brain, but that's not going to make any sense to you all. But it's really the parts of the brain that has to do with decision-making, right? So that's kind of one way to think about it, is that expressing gratitude makes you more effective decision-maker. If you are interested in wanting kind of a lay person's understanding of this research study. You just have to google Joe Wong and Josh Brown and gratitude. And it's an article online floating around and that explains in very practical ways how it impacts the brain. Okay. One last question. Or perhaps we're done. Yes. Yes. Thank you so much, John, on behalf of all of us from the speaker series action team, We really appreciate it. It was a great talk, I think a great way to start off the weekend. Martin dropped a link about if you want to be more from your from the local TED talks about you. And Madeline also dropped some links. So please check those out. Thank you so much all of you for attending. You have a choice of which airline. I'm kidding. Thanks for being with us. Thank you so much for being here today. Have a great weekend, everyone. It was a pleasure to be with you all. Thank you so much.